PDA - Patent Ductus Arteriosus
There is a communication between the aorta and pulmonary artery in a child at birth which supplies oxygen to the brain when the child is inside the mother. Normally at birth this duct ( communication) closes automatically, but in some babies this does not happen. So an operation is needed to close this duct. It is done through the chest wall ( Thoracotomy).
BT Shunt - Blalock Taussig Shunt
Some children do not have a fully developed pulmonary artery ( this supplies blood to the lungs for oxygenation) so the baby does not have enough oxygen in the blood and the blood is blue ( blue baby). The surgeon can sew a tube into the arteries of the heart to supply blood to the lungs and the baby becomes pink.
CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts.
Veins from leg, internal mammary artery from the inside of the chest ( mainly from left and sometimes from right) and radial artery from the forearm used to bypass the blocked areas of the coronary arteries of the heart. This can be done using the heart-lung machine ( on pump - heart stopped) or on the beating heart ( off-pump) using an immobilization device called the octopus device.
AVR - Aortic Valve Replacement
The aortic valve, which is the main valve through which blood goes out of the heart to the body, can get narrowed ( Arotic Stenosis) or does not close fully ( Aortic Incompetence / regurgitation). The defective valve is removed and replaced with an artificial valve.
MVR - Mitral Valve Replacement
The mitral valve is another valve in the heart that can undergo the same problems like the aortic valve and needs to be replaced just like mentioned in the AVR.
DVR- Double Valve Replacement
In some patients both the Aortic and Mitral valves are diseased and needs replacement at the same time. This patient will need 2 valves
TVR - Triple Valve Replacement
Very rarely three valves needs to be replaced, In addition to the Aortic and Mitral, the Tricuspid valves needs replacing.
There are two types of artificial valves. The Mechanical (metal) valve and the Tissue ( made from animals) valve. The choice of valve depends on the patient%u2019s and surgeon's preference.
The conditions below are called congenital defects as they are present at birth
ASD - Atrial Septal Defect
The was between the right and left side of the heart at the atrial level is defective. Commonly called hole-in-heart. An artificial patch or a piece of patient%u2019s, own tissue is used to close this hole.
VSD-Ventricular Septal Defect.
As the ASD but this defect is in the ventricular part of the heart, with a hole between the left and right sides. It is closed in the same way.
This condition has four defects; small pulmonary artery, VSD, large aorta and right ventricular thickening. Surgery is complex and corrects all these defects in one operation.